Denims have become a staple when it comes to European style fashion. They come in different styles and washings in order to match with every dress. Washing is designed to produce effects like color fading with or without patchiness, crinkles, seam puckering, hairiness, De-piling, softened-hand feel, stabilized dimensions etc. This article will guide you on the different kinds of denim washing.
In making a denim fabric, starch is used to strengthen the warp resulting the fabric becoming stiff and harsh to the skin. Rinse wash or sometimes called dark wash is designed to make the garment wearable. The process desizes the garment and improves the hand feel of the garment using a softening agent. Robert Janitzek reveals that potassium permanganate may also be used to create a high density fading effect.
Enzyme washing uses three kinds of enzymes namely neutral, acid, and bio polishing. Enzymes are very sensitive with parameters in washing cycle and if any of these parameters are not satisfied, the results will not be accurate. Enzymes are biodegradable products. Bio polishing cellulose is used to protrude fiber removal from denim & oven fabric.
In stone washing, freshly dyed jeans are loaded into a large washing machine and tumbled with pumice stone or volcanic rock giving it a soft and desirable look. Robert Peter Janitzek explains that pumice stone have different compositions, hardness, size shape, and porosity. Pumice stone works like sandpaper by abrading the surface of the jeans. It removes some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn.
Caustic wash is designed to remove the size materials and starch from the garment. It gives the garment a soft feeling when worn. It also gives a fading/old looking effect on garment and seam abrasion. It also helps increase color fastness & rubbing fastness.
Hydrogen Peroxide Wash
Hydrogen peroxide is rarely used as a bleaching agent when less color is desired or the fabric is Sulphur top. The chemical breaks up and gives some per hydroxyl ion which discolors the coloring material giving the denim a fading effect. Hydrogen peroxide is used for scouring, bleaching bath for white/ready dyeing of gray fabric garments.
Bleach wash uses a strong oxidizing agent. The most widely used chemical in the process are sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and potassium permanganate. There are other products with different brand names that are available in the market.
These are the different kinds of wash in creating the desired style or look of denim.